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- A Guide to Elementary Number Theory by Underwood Dudley A Guide to Elementary Number Theory is a 140 pages exposition of the topics considered in a first course in number theory. It is intended for those who may have seen the material before but have half-forgotten it, and also for those who may have misspent their youth by not having a course in number theory and who want to see what it is about without having to wade through a traditional text, some of which approach 500 pages in length. It will be especially useful to graduate student preparing for the qualifying exams. Though Plato did not quite say, He is unworthy of the name of man who does not know which integers are the sums of two squares he came close. This Guide can make everyone more worthy.Call Number: QA241 .D83 (also as an ebook)ISBN: 0883853477Publication Date: 2009-12-31
- Introduction to Modern Number Theory: Fundamental Problems, Ideas and Theories by Yu. I. Manin; A. A. Panchishkin; A. N. Parshin (Editor); Igor R. Shafarevich (Editor) This edition has been called 'startlingly up-to-date', and in this corrected second printing you can be sure that it's even more contemporaneous. It surveys from a unified point of view both the modern state and the trends of continuing development in various branches of number theory. Illuminated by elementary problems, the central ideas of modern theories are laid bare. Some topics covered include non-Abelian generalizations of class field theory, recursive computability and Diophantine equations, zeta- and L-functions. This substantially revised and expanded new edition contains several new sections, such as Wiles' proof of Fermat's Last Theorem, and relevant techniques coming from a synthesis of various theories.Call Number: Available as an ebookISBN: 9783540203643Publication Date: 2007-08-29
- An Introduction to Number Theory by Thomas Ward; G. Everest Includes up-to-date material on recent developments and topics of significant interest, such as elliptic functions and the new primality test Selects material from both the algebraic and analytic disciplines, presenting several different proofs of a single result to illustrate the differing viewpoints and give good insightCall Number: Available as an ebookISBN: 9781852339173Publication Date: 2007-05-21
- Mathematical Mysteries: the beauty and magic of numbers by Calvin C. Clawson Why seemingly unrelated mathematical truths are connected in simple and beautiful equations continues to stump even mathematicians. This recreational math book takes the reader on a fantastic voyage into the world of natural numbers. From the earliest discoveries of the ancient Greeks to various fundamental characteristics of the natural number sequence, Clawson explains fascinating mathematical mysteries in clear and easy prose. He delves into the heart of number theory to see and understand the exquisite relationships among natural numbers, and ends by exploring the ultimate mystery of mathematics: the Riemann hypothesis, which says that through a point in a plane, no line can be drawn parallel to a given line.While a professional mathematician’s treatment of number theory involves the most sophisticated analytical tools, its basic ideas are surprisingly easy to comprehend. By concentrating on the meaning behind various equations and proofs and avoiding technical refinements, Mathematical Mysteries lets the common reader catch a glimpse of this wonderful and exotic world.Call Number: QA241 .C52ISBN: 0306454041Publication Date: 1996-01-01
- Not Always Buried Deep: a second course in elementary number theory by Paul Pollack Number theory is one of the few areas of mathematics where problems of substantial interest can be fully described to someone with minimal mathematical background. Solving such problems sometimes requires difficult and deep methods. But this is not a universal phenomenon; many engaging problems can be successfully attacked with little more than one's mathematical bare hands. In this case one says that the problem can be solved in an elementary way. Such elementary methods and the problems to which they apply are the subject of this book. Not Always Buried Deep is designed to be read and enjoyed by those who wish to explore elementary methods in modern number theory. The heart of the book is a thorough introduction to elementary prime number theory, including Dirichlet's theorem on primes in arithmetic progressions, the Brun sieve, and the Erdos-Selberg proof of the prime number theorem. Rather than trying to present a comprehensive treatise, Pollack focuses on topics that are particularly attractive and accessible. Other topics covered include Gauss's theory of cyclotomy and its applications to rational reciprocity laws, Hilbert's solution to Waring's problem, and modern work on perfect numbers. The nature of the material means that little is required in terms of prerequisites: The reader is expected to have prior familiarity with number theory at the level of an undergraduate course and a first course in modern algebra (covering groups, rings, and fields). The exposition is complemented by over 200 exercises and 400 references.Call Number: QA241 .P65ISBN: 9780821848807Publication Date: 2009-10-14
- Number Theory and Its History by Oystein Ore Unusually clear, accessible introduction covers counting, properties of numbers, prime numbers, Aliquot parts, Diophantine problems, congruences, much more. Bibliography.Call Number: QA241 .O73ISBN: 0486656209Publication Date: 1988-04-01
- Riemann Hypothesis: the greatest unsolved problem in mathematics by Karl Sabbagh An engaging, informative, and wryly humorous exploration of one of the great conundrums of all time In 1859 Bernhard Riemann, a shy German mathematician, wrote an eight-page article giving an answer to a problem that had long puzzled mathematicians. But he didn’t provide a proof. In fact, he said he couldn’t prove it but he thought that his answer was “very probably” true. From the publication of that paper to the present day, the world’s mathematicians have been fascinated, infuriated, and obsessed with proving the Riemann Hypothesis, and so great is the interest in its solution that in 2001 an American foundation put up prize money of $1 million for the first person to demonstrate that the hypothesis is correct. The hypothesis refers to prime numbers, which are in some sense the atoms from which all other numbers are constructed, and seeks to explain where every single prime to infinity will occur. Riemann’s idea—if true—would illuminate how these numbers are distributed, and if false will throw pure mathematics into confusion. Karl Sabbagh meets some of the world’s mathematicians who spend their lives thinking about the Riemann Hypothesis, focusing attention in particular on “Riemann’s zeros,” a series of points that are believed to lie in a straight line, though no one can prove it. Accessible and vivid, The Riemann Hypothesis is a brilliant explanation of numbers and a profound meditation on the ultimate meaning of mathematics.Call Number: QA246 .S22ISBN: 0374250073Publication Date: 2003-04-30
- Topics in the Theory of Numbers by Paul Erdös; Janos Suranyi; B. Guiduli (Translator) Number theory, the branch of mathematics that studies the properties of the integers, is a repository of interesting and quite varied problems, sometimes impossibly difficult ones. In this book, the authors have gathered together a collection of problems from various topics in number theory that they find beautiful, intriguing, and from a certain point of view instructive.Call Number: QA241 .E73ISBN: 0387953205Publication Date: 2003-01-14

- Classical Mathematical Logic: the semantic foundations of logic by Richard L. Epstein; Leslaw W. Szczerba (Contribution by) In Classical Mathematical Logic, Richard L. Epstein relates the systems of mathematical logic to their original motivations to formalize reasoning in mathematics. The book also shows how mathematical logic can be used to formalize particular systems of mathematics. It sets out the formalization not only of arithmetic, but also of group theory, field theory, and linear orderings. These lead to the formalization of the real numbers and Euclidean plane geometry. The scope and limitations of modern logic are made clear in these formalizations. The book provides detailed explanations of all proofs and the insights behind the proofs, as well as detailed and nontrivial examples and problems. The book has more than 550 exercises. It can be used in advanced undergraduate or graduate courses and for self-study and reference. Classical Mathematical Logic presents a unified treatment of material that until now has been available only by consulting many different books and research articles, written with various notation systems and axiomatizations.Call Number: Available as an ebookISBN: 9781400841554Publication Date: 2011-12-18
- Euclid in the Rainforest: discovering universal truth in logic and math by Joseph Mazur Euclid in the Rainforest is beautifully written and packed with insights into how mathematicians convince themselves they are right. Joe Mazur is a talented teacher who knows his subject inside out, and his delightful stories take his readers effortlessly to the heart of mathematics--logic and proof. This original and charming book is accessible to anyone, and deserves major success.--Ian Stewart, Professor of Mathematics, University of Warwick, author of Math Hysteria and FlatterlandHow do we know that something is true? How do we know that things really are what they seem? Everyone knows math defines abstract, universal truths, and that scientific truths are established by experiments in the real world. But underlying both kinds of knowledge is logic. In Euclid in the Rainforest, Joseph Mazur examines the three types of logic that are the basis of all our knowledge of the world we live in: the classical logic of the Ancient Greeks, the weird logic of infinity, and the everyday logic of plausible reasoning that guides all science today. students making discoveries in the classroom, and his own quirky adventures in the Greek Islands, New York, and the jungles of South America, Mazur illuminates how we uncover truth in the tangled web of our experiences--and convince ourselves that we are right.Euclid took the incipient logic of his time to new heights with his magnificent geometry, the whole edifice of which is built on just five assumptions. That logic rigorously defined proof, cleverly avoiding problems with infinity that were introduced when the Pythagoreans discovered that the diagonal of a square could not be measured and Zeno of Elea used infinity to argue that motion is logically impossible. It would be almost two millennia, however, before a good understanding of the logic infinity emerged and made all kinds of technology possible. Plausible reasoning--which is based on the math of probability--lets us assess the general conclusions we derive from specific cases in scientific studies. true tomorrow, that investments of time and money are worthwhile, and so ultimately drives scientific, and human, progress.In lucid, ebullient language, Mazur, a professor of mathematics for over thirty years, makes the fundamentals of the three fundamental types of logic widely accessible for the first time. Deeper questions at the heart of the process of discovery are laid bare: What does it mean to believe a proof? Where does the finite end and the infinite begin? How can we be sure that something is true when chance plays so great a role in the universe? Exposing the surprising roles of intuition, belief, and persuasion in logic and math, Mazur tells a real-life detective story that has been going on for millennia; the pursuit of ultimate truth about our world, our universe, and ourselves.(c) Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.Call Number: QA9 .M29ISBN: 0131479946Publication Date: 2004-10-04
- Introduction to Mathematical Logic by Alonzo Church Logic is sometimes called the foundation of mathematics: the logician studies the kinds of reasoning used in the individual steps of a proof. Alonzo Church was a pioneer in the field of mathematical logic, whose contributions to number theory and the theories of algorithms and computability laid the theoretical foundations of computer science. His first Princeton book, The Calculi of Lambda-Conversion (1941), established an invaluable tool that computer scientists still use today. Even beyond the accomplishment of that book, however, his second Princeton book, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, defined its subject for a generation. Originally published in Princeton's Annals of Mathematics Studies series, this book was revised in 1956 and reprinted a third time, in 1996, in the Princeton Landmarks in Mathematics series. Although new results in mathematical logic have been developed and other textbooks have been published, it remains, sixty years later, a basic source for understanding formal logic. Church was one of the principal founders of the Association for Symbolic Logic; he founded the Journal of Symbolic Logic in 1936 and remained an editor until 1979 At his death in 1995, Church was still regarded as the greatest mathematical logician in the world.Call Number: Available as an ebookISBN: 9781400881451Publication Date: 2016-03-02
- Leniewski's Systems of Logic and Foundations of Mathematics by Rafal Urbaniak This meticulous critical assessment of the ground-breaking work of philosopher Stanislaw Leśniewski focuses exclusively on primary texts and explores the full range of output by one of the master logicians of the Lvov-Warsaw school. The author's nuanced survey eschews secondary commentary, analyzing Leśniewski's core philosophical views and evaluating the formulations that were to have such a profound influence on the evolution of mathematical logic. One of the undisputed leaders of the cohort of brilliant logicians that congregated in Poland in the early twentieth century, Leśniewski was a guide and mentor to a generation of celebrated analytical philosophers (Alfred Tarski was his PhD student). His primary achievement was a system of foundational mathematical logic intended as an alternative to the Principia Mathematica of Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell. Its three strands--'protothetic', 'ontology', and 'mereology', are detailed in discrete sections of this volume, alongside a wealth other chapters grouped to provide the fullest possible coverage of Leśniewski's academic output. With material on his early philosophical views, his contributions to set theory and his work on nominalism and higher-order quantification, this book offers a uniquely expansive critical commentary on one of analytical philosophy's great pioneers.​Call Number: Available as an ebookISBN: 9783319004815Publication Date: 2013-10-15
- Mathematical Logic by Ian Chiswell; Wilfrid Hodges Assuming no previous study in logic, this informal yet rigorous text covers the material of a standard undergraduate first course in mathematical logic, using natural deduction and leading up to the completeness theorem for first-order logic. At each stage of the text, the reader is given an intuition based on standard mathematical practice, which is subsequently developed with clean formal mathematics. Alongside the practical examples, readers learn what can andcan't be calculated; for example the correctness of a derivation proving a given sequent can be tested mechanically, but there is no general mechanical test for the existence of a derivation proving the given sequent. The undecidability results are proved rigorously in an optional final chapter,assuming Matiyasevich's theorem characterising the computably enumerable relations. Rigorous proofs of the adequacy and completeness proofs of the relevant logics are provided, with careful attention to the languages involved. Optional sections discuss the classification of mathematical structures by first-order theories; the required theory of cardinality is developed from scratch. Throughout the book there are notes on historical aspects of the material, and connections with linguisticsand computer science, and the discussion of syntax and semantics is influenced by modern linguistic approaches. Two basic themes in recent cognitive science studies of actual human reasoning are also introduced. Including extensive exercises and selected solutions, this text is ideal for students inLogic, Mathematics, Philosophy, and Computer Science.Call Number: Available as an ebookISBN: 9780191524806Publication Date: 2007-05-01
- The Origin of the Logic of Symbolic Mathematics by Burt C. Hopkins Burt C. Hopkins presents the first in-depth study of the work of Edmund Husserl and Jacob Klein on the philosophical foundations of the logic of modern symbolic mathematics. Accounts of the philosophical origins of formalized concepts--especially mathematical concepts and the process of mathematical abstraction that generates them--have been paramount to the development of phenomenology. Both Husserl and Klein independently concluded that it is impossible to separate the historical origin of the thought that generates the basic concepts of mathematics from their philosophical meanings. Hopkins explores how Husserl and Klein arrived at their conclusion and its philosophical implications for the modern project of formalizing all knowledge.Call Number: Available as an ebookISBN: 9780253005274Publication Date: 2011-09-07
- Philosophies of Mathematics by Daniel J. Velleman; Alexander L. George This book provides an accessible, critical introduction to the three main approaches that dominated work in the philosophy of mathematics during the twentieth century: logicism, intuitionism and formalism.Call Number: QA8.4 .G36ISBN: 0631195432Publication Date: 2001-12-03
- Philosophy of Mathematics: a contemporary introduction to the world of proofs and pictures by James Robert Brown In his long-awaited new edition of Philosophy of Mathematics, James Robert Brown tackles important new as well as enduring questions in the mathematical sciences. Can pictures go beyond being merely suggestive and actually prove anything? Are mathematical results certain? Are experiments of any real value? This clear and engaging book takes a unique approach, encompassing non-standard topics such as the role of visual reasoning, the importance of notation, and the place of computers in mathematics, as well as traditional topics such as formalism, Platonism, and constructivism. The combination of topics and clarity of presentation make it suitable for beginners and experts alike. The revised and updated second edition of Philosophy of Mathematics contains more examples, suggestions for further reading, and expanded material on several topics including a novel approach to the continuum hypothesis.Call Number: QA8.4 .B76ISBN: 9780415960489Publication Date: 2008-01-15

- Combinatorial Set Theory by Lorenz J. Halbeisen This book, now in a thoroughly revised second edition, provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to modern set theory. Following an overview of basic notions in combinatorics and first-order logic, the author outlines the main topics of classical set theory in the second part, including Ramsey theory and the axiom of choice. The revised edition contains new permutation models and recent results in set theory without the axiom of choice. The third part explains the sophisticated technique of forcing in great detail, now including a separate chapter on Suslin's problem. The technique is used to show that certain statements are neither provable nor disprovable from the axioms of set theory. In the final part, some topics of classical set theory are revisited and further developed in light of forcing, with new chapters on Sacks Forcing and Shelah's astonishing construction of a model with finitely many Ramsey ultrafilters. Written for graduate students in axiomatic set theory, Combinatorial Set Theory will appeal to all researchers interested in the foundations of mathematics. With extensive reference lists and historical remarks at the end of each chapter, this book is suitable for self-study.Call Number: Available as an ebookISBN: 9783319602301Publication Date: 2018-01-11
- Goedel's Way: exploits into an undecidable world by Gregory Chaitin; Francisco Antônio Doria; Newton da Costa Kurt G¿del (1906-1978) was an Austrian-American mathematician, who is best known for his incompleteness theorems. He was the greatest mathematical logician of the 20th century, with his contributions extending to Einstein¿s general relativity, as he proved that Einstein¿s theory allows for time machines. The G¿del incompleteness theorem - the usual formal mathematical systems cannot prove nor disprove all true mathematical sentences - is frequently presented in textbooks as something that happens in the rarefied realms of mathematical logic, and that has nothing to do with the real world. Practice shows the contrary though; one can demonstrate the validity of the phenomenon in various areas, ranging from chaos theory and physics to economics and even ecology. In this lively treatise, based on Chaitin¿s groundbreaking work and on the da Costa-Doria results in physics, ecology, economics and computer science, the authors show that the G¿del incompleteness phenomenon can directly bear on the practice of science and perhaps on our everyday life. This accessible book gives a new, detailed and elementary explanation of the G¿del incompleteness theorems and presents the Chaitin results and their relation to the da Costa-Doria results, which are given in full, but with no technicalities. Besides theory, the historical report and personal stories about the main character and on this book¿s writing process, make it appealing leisure reading for those interested in mathematics, logic, physics, philosophy and computer sciences. See also: http://www.youtube.com/watch'v=REy9noY5Sg8 Call Number: QA9.65 .C42ISBN: 9780415690850Publication Date: 2011-10-13
- Naive Set Theory by Paul R. Halmos 2011 Reprint of 1960 Edition. Full facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. Paul Richard Halmos (1916-2006) was a Hungarian-born American mathematician who made fundamental advances in the areas of probability theory, statistics, operator theory, ergodic theory, and functional analysis (in particular, Hilbert spaces). He was also recognized as a great mathematical expositor. "...He (the author) uses the language and notation of ordinary informal mathematics to state the basic set-theoretic facts which a beginning student of advanced mathematics needs to know...Because of the informal method of presentation, the book is eminently suited for use as a textbook or for self-study. The reader should derive from this volume a maximum of understanding of the theorems of set theory and of their basic importance in the study of mathematics." - "Philosophy and Phenomenological Research".Call Number: QA248 .H3ISBN: 1614271313Publication Date: 2011-08-01
- Philosophy of Mathematics: Set Theory, Measuring Theories, and Nominalism by Gerhard Preyer (Editor); Georg Peter (Editor) One main interest of philosophy is to become clear about the assumptions, premisses and inconsistencies of our thoughts and theories. And even for a formal language like mathematics it is controversial if consistency is acheivable or necessary like the articles in the firt part of the publication show. Also the role of formal derivations, the role of the concept of apriority, and the intuitions of mathematical principles and properties need to be discussed. The second part is a contribution on nominalistic and platonistic views in mathematics, like the "indispensability argument" of W. v. O. Quine H. Putnam and the "makes no difference argument" of A. Baker. Not only in retrospect, the third part shows the problems of Mill, Frege's and the unity of mathematics and Descartes's contradictional conception of mathematical essences. Together, these articles give us a hint into the relationship between mathematics and world, that is, one of the central problems in philosophy of mathematics and philosophy of science.Call Number: Available as an ebookISBN: 9783110323689Publication Date: 2013-05-02
- Problems and Theorems in Classical Set Theory by Peter Komjath; Vilmos Totik This volume contains a variety of problems from classical set theory and represents the first comprehensive collection of such problems. Many of these problems are also related to other fields of mathematics, including algebra, combinatorics, topology and real analysis. Rather than using drill exercises, most problems are challenging and require work, wit, and inspiration. They vary in difficulty, and are organized in such a way that earlier problems help in the solution of later ones. For many of the problems, the authors also trace the history of the problems and then provide proper reference at the end of the solution.Call Number: Available as an ebookISBN: 9780387362199Publication Date: 2006-11-22
- Set Theory: With an Introduction to Real Point Sets by Abhijit Dasgupta What is a number? What is infinity? What is continuity? What is order? Answers to these fundamental questions obtained by late nineteenth-century mathematicians such as Dedekind and Cantor gave birth to set theory. This textbook presents classical set theory in an intuitive but concrete manner. To allow flexibility of topic selection in courses, the book is organized into four relatively independent parts with distinct mathematical flavors. Part I begins with the Dedekind-Peano axioms and ends with the construction of the real numbers. The core Cantor-Dedekind theory of cardinals, orders, and ordinals appears in Part II. Part III focuses on the real continuum. Finally, foundational issues and formal axioms are introduced in Part IV. Each part ends with a postscript chapter discussing topics beyond the scope of the main text, ranging from philosophical remarks to glimpses into landmark results of modern set theory such as the resolution of Lusin's problems on projective sets using determinacy of infinite games and large cardinals. Separating the metamathematical issues into an optional fourth part at the end makes this textbook suitable for students interested in any field of mathematics, not just for those planning to specialize in logic or foundations. There is enough material in the text for a year-long course at the upper-undergraduate level. For shorter one-semester or one-quarter courses, a variety of arrangements of topics are possible. The book will be a useful resource for both experts working in a relevant or adjacent area and beginners wanting to learn set theory via self-study.Call Number: Available as an ebookISBN: 9781461488538Publication Date: 2013-12-07
- Set Theory and Its Logic, Revised Edition by W. V. Quine This is an extensively revised edition of Mr. Quine's introduction to abstract set theory and to various axiomatic systematizations of the subject. The treatment of ordinal numbers has been strengthened and much simplified, especially in the theory of transfinite recursions, by adding an axiom and reworking the proofs. Infinite cardinals are treated anew in clearer and fuller terms than before. Improvements have been made all through the book; in various instances a proof has been shortened, a theorem strengthened, a space-saving lemma inserted, an obscurity clarified, an error corrected, a historical omission supplied, or a new event noted.Call Number: Available as an ebookISBN: 9780674042421Publication Date: 2009-06-30
- Theory of Sets by E. Kamke; Frederick Bagemihl (Translator) "Exceptionally well written." -- School Science and Mathematics "A very fine book." -- Mathematics Teacher "Of real service to logicians and philosophers who have hitherto had no access to a concise and accurate introduction to the general theory of sets." -- Philosophical Review This is the clearest and simplest introduction yet written to the theory of sets. Making use of the discoveries of Cantor, Russell, Weierstrass, Zermelo, Bernstein, Dedekind, and other mathematicians, it analyzes concepts and principles and offers innumerable examples. Its emphasis is on fundamentals and the presentation is easily comprehensible to readers with some college algebra. But special subdivisions, such as the theory of sets of points, are considered. The contents include rudiments (first classifications, subsets, sums, intersection of sets, nonenumerable sets, etc.); arbitrary sets and their cardinal numbers (extensions of number concept, equivalence of sets, sums and products of two and many cardinal numbers, etc.); ordered sets and their order types; and well-ordered sets and their ordinal numbers (addition and multiplication of ordinal numbers, transfinite induction, products and powers of ordinal numbers, well-ordering theorem, well-ordering of cardinal and ordinal numbers, etc.).Call Number: QA248 .K24ISBN: 9780486601410Publication Date: 2010-11-18

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